Thursday, January 13, 2005

A DEP evasion technique

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In an earlier post, I pointed out a possible way to evade Data Execution Prevention in Microsoft Windows XP Service Pack 2. I feel this deserves its own blog post, so I've decided to go on here.

I'd like to first point out that this is a speculative method to evade hardware-enforced DEP based on various documentation. There is not yet a proof-of-concept, but this does not mean there is not a vulnerability. I will make a short blog if and when a POC is available, or if it turns out that I was wrong in my analysis.

This method applies to any system where proper protections on memory can prevent it from being executable, whether by hardware facilities or software emulation, if and only if those systems do not employ appropriate countermeasures such as memory protection restrictions (mprotect() or VirtualProtect()) or Address Space Layout Randomization.

This means that systems such as PaX, Exec Shield, and W^X are not vulnerable. PaX supplies high quality ASLR and mprotect() restrictions on Linux; while Exec Shield and W^X both supply ASLR for shared libraries at least. This technique still applies if certain information leaks (/proc/[pid]/maps) are not obscured, however.

The original problem that deploying these memory protections was meant to solve is shellcode injection. Some vulnerabilities, such as those in US-CERT Technical Alerts TA04-315A, TA04-260A, and TA04-293A lead to arbitrary code execution. While in these cases upgrading to Service Pack 2 brings fixes to Internet Explorer, future vulnerabilites similar to these will not be protected by DEP itself.

There are two reasons why DEP can be exploited. First, the VirtualProtect() function can still be called with any protecitons. There is no restriction at the time of this writing to VirtualProtect(), and so arbitrary memory can be made executable, or executable and writable.

Second, there is also ASLR, which makes locating the address of the VirtualProtect() function both easy and reliable. Even if VirtualProtect() were restricted properly, CreateFileMapping() and other functions could be used with open() and write() to simply write the data to a file and map it in as executable data.

Additionally, VirtualAlloc() and memcpy() could be used, since "VirtualAlloc can commit [(allocate)] an already committed page." It will seriously corrupt memory, but this is already a memory corruption attack so who cares?

To explain this exploit, we'll start with a normal proof-of-concept overflow. eEye Digital Security discovered a vulnerability in USER32.dll allowing animated cursor files to cause a buffer overflow and execute arbitrary code. A proof-of-concept was later released by Assaf Reshef to demonstrate this vulnerability.

This proof-of-concept falls in a class that would be stopped by DEP. It uses a buffer overflow to inject code into the stack and modify the return pointer to execute that code. Upon execution, the CPU raises a Segmentation Fault because the memory area is not executable. Thus, Windows is able to stop this exploit on Service Pack 2 on supporting processors.

Below is explained a hypothetical modification to the above cited proof-of-concept exploit for this particular overflow. The exploit as described below has not been written or tested, and is purely theoretical.

The process can be modified to inject a modified sest of data during the overflow. This data would contain a modified stack frame pointer, return pointer, a stack frame, and a block of payload shellcode, as shown below.

[SFPT][RETP][STACK FRAME][STACK FRAME2][SHELLCODE]

The SFPT would point at the STACK FRAME, and RETP would point to VirtualAlloc(). The STACK FRAME would have a return pointer to SHELLCODE, and appropriate layout for a call to VirtualAlloc() as shown below.

VirtualAlloc(REMOTE_BASE, SHELLCODE_LENGTH, MEM_COMMIT, PAGE_EXECUTE_READWRITE);

Upon RET from the overflowed function, the above call to VirtualAlloc() would be made to allocate an area big enough for the shellcode with protecitons PAGE_EXECUTE_READWRITE. This would leave the area readable, writable, and executable, all at the same time. Because VirtualAlloc() will allocate overtop of already allocated memory, REMOTE_BASE need only to be some remote address not near VirtualProtect(), memcpy(), or the injected stack frames and shellcode.

Because the stack frame for the call to VirtualAlloc() was part of the initial overflow, the attacker has complete control of its contents. The return pointer in the stack frame therefore should point to memcpy(), with a proper pointer to STACK FRAME2. This means that, upon RET, memcpy() is executed. It should be executed as shown below.

memcpy(REMOTE_BASE, SHELLCODE_BASE, SHELLCODE_LENGTH);

This copies SHELLCODE into the newly allocated area of memory. Again, the attacker has complete control over the stack frame. On RET, SHELLCODE is returned to. This causes SHELLCODE to execute.

When SHELLCODE is executed at the end of this process, it has been copied to a newly created executable area by existing code supplied by the Windows operating system. This means, as stated above, that SHELLCODE can safely be executed without DEP interfering. This attack method should be plausible for any attack in which shellcode is injected, and is compatible with older, non-DEP Microsoft Windows systems as well.

Note that the original overflow string must not contain NULL characters in buffer overflows involving strcpy() and related functions. This is because the string will end there and not be copied to the stack. Access to ASCII armored areas (addresses containing a NULL byte) will not normally be possible, although there may be ways to load the heap with prepared data, such as by loading certain data files or running certain scripts.

The NULL byte dilema may be evadable if a UUE, Base64, or MIME decoding function is available, and does not start at an ASCII armored address. In these cases, the first return can be a return-to-UUDecode() and can decode the rest of the attack, then continue with it. The UUDecode() address and stack frame must not contain any NULL bytes for this to work.

In conclusion, Microsoft's Hardware DEP protection does not prevent future exploits from being successful; it only adds a trivial amount of complexity to the attack. I believe that any attacker able to create the exploit as it would normally work will be able to handle the less complex task of incorporating a return-to-VirtualAlloc() and memcpy() attack into the process. This could only be properly protected against by incorporating Address Space Layout Randomization into the protection scheme.

72 Comments:

Blogger kuwanger said...

My understand of the software DEP (which only applies to "core system files", which I guess includes IE) which would interfere with this is canary/cookie seeding. Basically, on the stack you'd have:

[start cookie][buffer][end cookie]...[return pointer]

Before the function returns, the end and start cookies are checked to verify they've not been altered. If either of them have, there's an exception and the program closes. So, obviously in at least some of the programs you'd have to figure out the end cookie. I can only guess that the cookie is generated at runtime because otherwise it'd be relatively trivial to locally find the cookie of a variety of system libraries and use it as a basis for attack. Seeing as the program reports to you the exception and allows handling it, a debugger would even kindly point to you when to look and the exact value to seed if it were static.

So, yes, your suggestion works on at least some (most?) of the libraries in use on a lot of machines. But those with the cookie stubs are relatively safe from a ret2libc attack, I hope. If the cookie stubs are static, then you're right that it's just a few more steps to building a successful exploit.

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Blogger John said...

Not quite. The canary on the stack requires the program to be recompiled. I recognize that SSP and other systems would actually do something; but there are other ways than stack buffer overflows to execute arbitrary code. There's no guarantee that the SSP is used, too.

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Blogger Purplet said...

I've posted a working example, albeit working on a trivial host program, just to check/prove the feasibility of the technique whenever the /GS compiler switch is disabled.

Thank you for the great article.

http://www.mastropaolo.com/?p=13

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Hi Im not sure if ne1 can help me but Im hopeing sum1 can... jus recently when i restarted my com it first asked me to enter a pasword to log into windows, i had not set it up for that and this was the first time it happened.. i clicked ok and as soon as my desktop background came up I got a msg from Data Execution Prevention saying " To help protect your computer, windows has closed this program" Name - Userinit Logon Application. Publisher- Microsoft corporation. and when I click close msg, it says Userinit Logon Application has encountered a problem and needs to close and then nothing happens i only see the mouse and the back ground nothing loads up I formated my com and jus as i finished reinstalling most of my software when i restarted the com it happened again... What do i have to do to fix this or disable DEP???

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